Virtual linear map algorithm for classical boost in near-term quantum computing


The rapid progress in quantum computing witnessed in recent years has sparked widespread interest in developing scalable quantum information theoretic methods to work with large quantum systems. For instance, several approaches have been proposed to bypass tomographic state reconstruction, and yet retain to a certain extent the capability to estimate multiple physical properties of a given state previously measured. In this paper, we introduce the Virtual Linear Map Algorithm (VILMA), a new method that enables not only to estimate multiple operator averages using classical post-processing of informationally complete measurement outcomes, but also to do so for the image of the measured reference state under low-depth circuits of arbitrary, not necessarily physical, k-local maps. We also show that VILMA allows for the variational optimisation of the virtual circuit through sequences of efficient linear programs. Finally, we explore the purely classical version of the algorithm, in which the input state is a state with a classically efficient representation, and show that the method can prepare ground states of many-body Hamiltonians.